Terms Used in Division
The terms used in division are dividend, divisor, quotient and remainder.
We know that divisor means to split a large
group of objects into smaller equal groups. The larger group is called the
dividend. The number of smaller equal groups is called the divisor and the
number of objects in each smaller group is called the quotient.
Let us divide 12 candies among 3 children.
Now, let us divide 9 flowers into 2 equal
groups.
When we cannot make equal groups or share
equally all the objects, the number which is left undivided is called the
remainder. Remainder is always less than the divisor.
Division is repeated subtraction.
For example:
24 ÷ 6
How many times would you subtract 6 from 24 to reach 0?
24  6 = 18 one time
18  6 = 12 two times
12  6 = 6 three times
6  6 = 0 four times
For every multiplication fact, there are two division facts.
For example:
(i) 5 × 7 = 35
35 ÷ 5 = 7; 35 ÷ 7 = 5
(ii) 8 × 6 = 48
48 ÷ 8 = 6; 48 ÷ 6 = 8
(iii) 9 × 5 = 45 is the same as 45 ÷ 9 = 5
7 × 9 = 63 is the same as 63 ÷ 7 = 9
Each of the terms used in division are explained below:
The number which is divided is called the dividend.
The number which divides is called the divisor.
The number which is the result of the division is called the quotient.
If there is any number left over, it is called the remainder.
The answer of a division operation can be verified in the following manner:
Quotient × Divisor + Remainder = Dividend
Consider the following examples to understand the terms showing in the division:
(i) 54 divided by 6
Dividend = Divisor × Quotient + Remainder
54 = 6 × 9 + 0
(ii) 81 divided by 9.
Dividend = Divisor × Quotient + Remainder
81 = 9 × 9 + 0
Properties of Division:
Let us recall the properties of division:
I: When the dividend is 0 and the divisor is a nonzero number, the quotient is 0.
(i) 0 ÷ 9 = 0
(ii) 0 ÷ 45 = 0
(iii) 0 ÷ 4524 = 0
II. When the divisor is 1, the quotient is the same number as the dividend.
(i) 8 ÷ 1 = 8
(ii) 77 ÷ 1 = 77
(iii) 4254 ÷ 1 = 4254
III. When the dividend and the divisor are the same nonzero number, the quotient is 1.
(i) 7 ÷ 7 = 1
(ii) 16 ÷ 16 = 1
(iii) 250 ÷ 250 = 1
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