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Practice the questions given in the worksheet on median of ungrouped data. 1. Find the median of the following. (i) The first seven even natural numbers (ii) 5, 0, 2, 4, 3 (iii) 25, 22, 28, 23, 21, 27, 25, 24, 20 2. Find the median of the following. The first six odd natural
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Practice the questions given in the worksheet on mean of ungrouped data. 1. Find the mean of the following. (i) The first five positive integers. (ii) The first six even natural numbers. 2. Find the mean of the following data. (i) 7, 9, 3, 5, 8, 6 (ii) 4, 11, 0, 5, 10
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Here we will learn how to solve the different types of problems on median of ungrouped data. 1. The heights (in cm) of 11 players of a team are as follows: 160, 158, 158, 159, 160, 160, 162, 165, 166, 167, 170. The number of variates = 11, which is odd. Therefore, median =
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Here we will learn how to solve the different types of problems on mean of ungrouped data. 1. (i) Find the mean of 6, 10, 0, 7, 9. (ii) Find the mean of the first four odd natural numbers. Solution: (i) We know that the mean of five variates
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The median of raw data is the number which divides the observations when arranged in an order (ascending or descending) in two equal parts. Method of finding median Take the following steps to find the median of raw data. Step I: Arrange the raw data in ascending
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The mean of data indicate how the data are distributed around the central part of the distribution. That is why the arithmetic numbers are also known as measures of central tendencies. Mean Of Raw Data: The mean (or arithmetic mean) of n observations (variates)
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The frequency of a value of a variable is the number of times it appears in a collection of data. Example: What is the frequency of 12 in the following data? Solution: 12 appears thrice in the collection. So, the frequency of 12 is 3. Solved Example: The weights (in kg) of
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The difference between the greatest and the least values of a variable in a collection of data is called the range of the data. For Example: In collection A, the greatest value of marks obtained is 90 while the least value of the same is 4. So, the range of the data = 90  4
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The quantity whose different values during observation constitute the collection of data is called a statistical variable. In collection A, the marks obtained by the students is a variable. If we denote the marks obtained by x then x is a variable in the collection.
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Collection A (shown below) represents the marks obtained by 50 students in a test of 100 marks. In the collection above, 80, 70, etc., are called the terms of the collection. Depending on the form of expression, data may be raw (i.e., ungrouped) or arrayed. I. Raw Data:
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Statics is that branch of mathematic which deals with the collection, classification, representation, analysis and interpretation on numerical data. The study of statistics started nearly 2000 years ago. Today statistics holds an important place in the fields of economics
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We will discuss here some of the problems on frequency polygon. The monthly salaries of 55 workers of a factory are displayed in the following ogive. Answer the following. (i) How many workers have a monthly salary UNDER $ 4000? (ii) How many workers have a monthly salary
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We will discuss here some of the problems on frequency polygon. 1. The frequency polygon of a frequency distribution is shown below. Answer the following about the distribution from the histogram. (i) What is the frequency of the class interval whose class mark is 15?
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We will discuss here some of the problems on histogram. The histogram for a frequency distribution is given below. (i) What is the frequency of the class interval 15 – 20? (ii) What is the class intervals having the greatest frequenciey? (iii) What is the cumulative
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Gropu data are also represented by a curve called ogive or cumulativefrequency curve. As the name suggests, in this representation cumulative frequencies of different class intervals play an important role. Method of Constructing on Ogive: Prepare a frequencydistribution
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We will discuss about the method of constructing a frequency polygon with the help of a class marks. Step I: Prepare a frequencydistribution table overlapping intervals. Step II: Find the class marks of the class intervals and locate them on the horizontal axis
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Step I: Draw the histogram for the frequency distribution as explained above. Step II: Locate the midpoint of the top horizontal side of each rectangle in the histogram. Step III: Locate the middle points on the horizontal axis of two imaginary intervals of common size, one
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Grouped data are also represented by frequency polygons. A frequency polygon is a polygon whose vertices are at the midpoint of the tops of rectangles forming the histogram of the frequency distribution. These middle points correspond to the class marks of the corresponding
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Grouped data are often represented graphically by histograms. A histogram consists of rectangles, each of which has breadth equal or proportional to the size of the concerned call interval, and height equal or proportional to the corresponding frequency.
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Solved examples on Word problems on addition and subtraction . 1. In a school there are 2,392 boys and 2,184 girls. Find the total number of students in the school. Solution: Number of boys in the school = 2392 Number of girls in the school = + 2184 Total students in the
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Practice the worksheet on word problem on multiplication. 1. One complete set of class IV costs $264. How much money did a class of 42 children pay to the bookshop owner, if all of them bought their books from him? 2. One pair of football shoes costs $ 628. Find the cost of
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Solved examples on word problems on multiplication.For a school trip 6 buses were hired. Each bus carried 42 children. How many children went on the trip? Solution: 2. The product of two numbers is 96. If one number is 8, find the other. Multiplicand × Multiplier = Product`
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Practice the worksheet on word problem on addition and subtraction. 1. In a village, there are 4,318 men, 3,624 women and 5,176 children. What is the total population of the village? 2. In a school, there are 860 children in the preprimary section, 1,200 children in th
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We can make numbers from the given digits. Let us see the rules. Rule I. To get the smallest number, arrange the digits in ascending order from left to right. Rule II. To get the greatest number, arrange the digits in descending order from left to right. Example: Write the
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Practice the worksheet on facts about division. We know, dividend is always equal to the product of the divisor and the quotient added to the remainder. This will help us to solve the given questions. 1. Fill in the blanks: (i) Division is __ subtraction.
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Practice the worksheet on facts about multiplication. We know in multiplication, the number being multiplied is called the multiplicand and the number by which it is being multiplied is called the multiplier. This will help us to solve the given questions.
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Practice the worksheet on facts about subtraction. Subtraction with small numbers can be worked out horizontally and subtraction with large numbers is worked out vertically. 1. Fill in the missing numbers. (i) Take away 14 from 80 is ______ (ii) 150 decreased by 80 is ____
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Practice the worksheet on facts about addition. Addition of small numbers can be done horizontally and large numbers are added in vertical columns. 1. Fill in the missing number/word. (i) 4315 + 101 = 101 + ______ = ______ (ii) 1795 + 241 = 241 + ______
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We have learnt multiplication of numbers with 2digit multiplier. Now, we will learn more. Let us know some facts about multiplication. 1. In multiplication, the number being multiplied is called the multiplicand and the number by which it is being multiplied is called the
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The operation to finding the difference between two numbers is called subtraction. Let us know some facts about subtraction which will help us to learn subtraction of large numbers. 1. Subtraction with small numbers can be worked out horizontally. Example: 8 – 5 = 3 24 – 4 =
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The operation to find the total of different values is called addition. Let us know some facts about addition which will help us to learn to add 4digit and 5digit numbers. 1. Addition of small numbers can be done horizontally. Example: 6 + 2 + 3 = 11
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We have already learned division by repeated subtraction, equal sharing/distribution and by short division method. Now, we will read some facts about division to learn long division. 1. If the dividend is ‘zero’ then any number as a divisor will give the quotient as ‘zero’.
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When we write a number as a sum of place value of its digits, the number is said to be in expended form and when we write a number using digits, the number is said to be in short form. There are 3 ways to write the expanded form. There are 3 ways to write the expanded form
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As we know that the division is to distribute a given value or quantity into groups having equal values. In long division, values at the individual place (Thousands, Hundreds, Tens, Ones) are dividend one at a time starting with the highest place.
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Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for the product AB if the number of columns of A be equal to the number of rows of B. If A be an m × n matrix and B an n × p matrix then their product AB is defined to be the m × p matrix whose (ij)th element is obtained by
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Practice the problems given in the worksheet on addition of matrices. If M and N are the two matrices of the same order, then the matrices are said conformable for addition, and their sum is obtained by adding the corresponding elements of M and N. 1. Find the sum of A and B
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We will discuss about the properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix. If X and Y are two m × n matrices (matrices of the same order) and k, c and 1 are the numbers (scalars). Then the following results are obvious. I. k(A + B) = kA + kB II. (k + c)A = kA + cA III. k(cA)
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The operation of multiplying variables by a constant scalar factor may properly be called scalar multiplication and the rule of multiplication of matrix by a scalar is that the product of an m × n matrix A = [aij] by a scalar quantity c is the m × n matrix [bij] where bij
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We proceed to develop the algebra of subtraction of matrices. Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for subtraction if they have the same order (i.e. same number of rows and columns) and their difference A  B is defined to be the addition of A and (B).
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We will discuss about the properties of addition of matrices. 1. Commutative law of addition of matrix: Matrix multiplication is commutative. This says that, if A and B are matrices of the same order such that A + B is defined then A + B = B + A. Proof: Let A = [aij]m × n
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We proceed to develop the algebra of matrices. Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for addition if they have the same order (same number of rows and columns). If A = (aij)m, n and B = (bij)m,n then their sum A + B is the matrix C = (cij)m,n where cij = aij + bij
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There are two types of triangular matrices. 1. Upper Triangular Matrix: A square matrix (aij) is said to be an upper triangular matrix if all the elements below the principal diagonal are zero (0). That is, [aij]m × n is an upper triangular matrix if (i) m = n and (ii) aij
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We will solve different types of problems on height and distance with two angles of elevation. Another type of case arises for two angles of elevations. In the given figure, let PQ be the height of pole of ‘y’ units. QR be the one of the distance between the foot of the pole
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We have already learnt about trigonometry in previous units in detail. Trigonometry has its own applications in mathematics and in physics. One such application of trigonometry in mathematics is “height and distances”. To know about height and distances, we have to start
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A scalar matrix whose diagonal elements are all equal to 1, the identity element of the ground field F, is said to be an identity (or unit) matrix. The identity matrix of order n is denoted by In. A scalar matrix is said to be a unit matrix, if diagonal elements are unity.
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Equality of two matrix: Two matrices [aij] and [bij] are said to be equal when they have the same number of rows and columns and aij = bij for all admissible values of i and j. Definition of Equal Matrices: Two matrices A and B are said to be equal if A and B have the same
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If each element of an m × n matrix be 0, the null element of F, the matrix is said to be the null matrix or the zero matrix of order m × n and it is denoted by Om,n. It is also denoted by O, when no confusion regarding its order arises. Null or zero Matrix: Whether A is a
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Here we will discuss about the column matrix with examples. In an m × n matrix, if n = 1, the matrix is said to be a column matrix. Definition of Column Matrix: If a matrix have only one column then it is called column matrix. Examples of column matrix:
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In an m × n matrix, if m = 1, the matrix is said to be a row matrix. Definition of Row Matrix: If a matrix have only one row then it is called row matrix. Here we will discuss about the row matrix with examples. Examples of row matrix:
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