# Numbers

Numbers are used for calculating and counting.

These counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......... are called natural numbers

In order to describe the number of elements in a collection with no objects, we use the symbol ‘0’ called zero.

The number ‘0’ together with the natural numbers gives us the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …………… which are called whole numbers.

We know,

In order to represent any numbers, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. These ten symbols are called digits or figures.

A group of digits denoting a number is called a numeral.

For example, 1237, 70156, 100758 etc. are numerals.`

Note:

Hereafter, we shall be using the words, number and numeral, as the same thing.

The method of representing a number in digits or figures is called notation.

Numeration is known as the method of expressing a number in words.

Thus in numbers we will learn how to read and write large numbers, comparison of numbers, estimation etc.......

Numbers play an important role in our daily life. We use them to count objects. We use them to arrange objects or collection in order. In this chapter, we will learn how to count or calculate to solve problems in our daily life. We shall also learn how to recognize, compare, order of numbers, make of numbers using digit, estimation of numbers.

Numbers

Estimate to Nearest Tens

Estimate to Nearest Hundreds

Estimate to Nearest Thousands

Estimating Sum and Difference

Estimating Product and Quotient

Properties of Natural Numbers

The Number Zero

Properties of Whole Numbers

Successor and Predecessor

Representation of Whole Numbers on Number Line

Properties of Subtraction

Properties of Multiplication

Properties of Division

Division as The Inverse of Multiplication

Representations of Fractions on a Number Line

Fraction as Division

Types of Fractions

Conversion of Mixed Fractions into Improper Fractions

Conversion of Improper Fractions into Mixed Fractions

Equivalent Fractions

Interesting Fact about Equivalent Fractions

Fractions in Lowest Terms

Like and Unlike Fractions

Comparing Like Fractions

Comparing Unlike Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Like Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Unlike Fractions

Inserting a Fraction between Two Given Fractions

To find Profit or Loss when Cost Price and Selling Price are Given

To find Selling Price when Cost Price and Profit or Loss are Given

To find Cost Price when Selling Price and Profit or Loss are Given

Examples on Profit and Loss

Compare Two Numbers using a Number Line

Natural Numbers, Whole Numbers and Integers on Number Lines

Addition of Numbers using Number Line

Subtraction of Numbers using Number Line

Addition of Numbers without using Number Line

Representing Fractions on Number Line

Representing Decimals on Number Line

Number Line - Worksheets

Worksheet on Fractions and Decimals on Number Line

Worksheet on Addition and Subtraction using Number Line

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