Types of quadrilaterals are discussed here:
In a quadrilateral family, each member has four sides, four vertices and four angles.
A rectangle is a parallelogram in which all the angles are right angles.
Here ABCD is a rectangle.
(i) So, AB is parallel to DC.
AD is parallel to BC.
(ii) AD = BC
AB = DC
(iii) ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°
Definition of Rectangle:
A parallelogram having each angle a right angle is called a rectangle.
In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle, in which AB || DC, AD || BC, AB = CD, AD = BC and diagonal AC = diagonal BD and all angles are right angles.
A square is a rectangle in which all sides are equal.
Here ABCD is a square.
(i) AB is parallel to DC.
BC is parallel to AD.
(ii) AB = BC = CD = DA.
(iii) ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°
Definition of Square:
A parallelogram having all sides equal and all angles of right angles is called a square.
In the figure, ABCD is a square, in which AB || DC, AD || BC, AB = BC = CD = DA and ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D =90°.
A quadrilateral is called trapezium if a pair of its opposite sides are parallel.
Here ABCD is a trapezium.
AB is parallel to DC.
Definition of Trapezium:
A quadrilateral having one pair of parallel sides is called trapezium. Other pair of opposite sides may or may not be parallel.
In the above figure, ABCD is a trapezium, in which AB ||DC
Note:
If a trapezium has non parallel sides equal, it is called isosceles trapezium.
An isosceles trapezium is a quadrilateral having exactly one pair of parallel sides and the non-parallel sides are of equal length. i.e., AB || CD and AD = BC
A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and equal is called a parallelogram. Its opposite angles are equal.
Here LMNO is a parallelogram.
(i) LM is parallel to ON.
LO is parallel to MN.
(ii) LO = MN
LM = ON
(iii) ∠L = ∠N
∠M = ∠O
Definition of Parallelogram:
A quadrilateral having both pairs of opposite sides parallel is called a parallelogram.
In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram, in which AB || DC and AD || BC.
Note: All parallelogram are trapezium but all trapezium are not parallelogram.
A rhombus is a parallelogram whose all sides are equal, opposite sides are parallel and opposite angles are equal.
Here LMNO is a rhombus.
(i) LM = MN = NO = OL
(ii) ∠L = ∠N
∠O = ∠M
(iii) LM is parallel to ON
OL is parallel to MN
Definition of Rhombus:
A parallelogram having all sides equal is called a rhombus.
In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus, in which AB || DC, AD || BC and AB = BC = DC = DA
Comparing the sides and angles of the different quadrilateral are discussed above.
Name of Quadrilateral |
Identifying Features |
Figures |
1. Rectangle |
A parallelogram with all angles right angles. | |
2. Square |
A rhombus with all angles right angles. | |
3. Rhombus |
A parallelogram with all sides equal. | |
4. Parallelogram |
A quadrilateral having 2 pairs of opposite sides parallel and equal. | |
5. Kite |
A quadrilateral having 2 pairs of adjacent sides equal. | |
6. Trapezium |
A quadrilateral having 1 pair of opposite sides parallel. | |
7. Isosceles Trapezium |
A trapezium with a pair of non-parallel opposite sides equal. |
1. From the figures given below, state which of the following are quadrilaterals?
Solution:
(i) No, it is a triangle containing 3 sides.
(ii) Yes, it is a quadrilateral with 4 sides.
(iii) No, is a hexagon with 6 sides.
(iv) Yes, it is a quadrilateral with 4 sides.
2. From the adjoining figure, state whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) AB = DC
(ii) AB||BC
(iii) ∠BAD = ∠BCD
(iv) ∠ABC=∠DAB
Solution:
(i) True, since AB and DC are opposite sides of parallelogram ABCD.
(ii) False, since AB and BC are adjacent sides of parallelogram ABCD.
(iii) True, since ∠BAD and ∠BCD are opposite angles of parallelogram ABCD.
(iv) False, since ∠ABC and ∠DAB are adjacent angles of parallelogram ABCD.
3. How many rectangles can be found in the following figure? Name them.
Solution:
9 rectangles; ABCD, AGHD, GBCH, AEFB, EDCF, AGIE, GBFI, IFCH, IHDE
Construction of Perpendicular Lines by using a Protractor.
Sum of Angles of a Quadrilateral.
Practice Test on Quadrilaterals.
5th Grade Geometry Page
5th Grade Math Problems
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