Types of Three-Dimensional Shapes (3D Shapes)

We will learn different types of three-dimensional shapes.

Three-dimensional figures are also called solids. The most commonly used solids are cuboids, cylinders, cones and tetrahedrons.

A three dimensional shape can be better described, if its faces, edges and vertices are known.

Face: Each side of a solid has a surface called a face.

Face of a Solid


Edge: Two faces meet at a line segment called an edge

Edge of a Solid

Vertex: Three edges meet at a point called a vertex.

Vertex of a Solid

Types of Three-Dimensional Shapes:

1. Cuboid: A 3-dimensional shape whose length, breadth and height are different is called a cuboid.

Edges, Faces and Vertices of a Cuboid

A cuboid has 6 faces. Each face has 4 edges and 4 corners (also called vertices). All the six faces are not all of the same size. Only the opposite faces are the same.

For Example: Sugar cubes, Chalk box, Brick, Match-box, book, etc.


2. Cube: A cuboid with equal length, breadth and height is called a cube. 

Edges, Faces and Vertices of a Cube

It has 6 faces, all of which are squares of the same size. Each face has 4 edges and each face has 4 vertices.


3. Cylinder: A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometrical shapes. A cylinder is like a round pipe. 

Edges and Faces of a Cylinder

It has 2 flat or plane faces which are circular regions and one curved face. It has 2 edges and no corners.


4. Sphere: A sphere is the set of all points in a 3-dimensional space which are at equal distance from a fixed point. 

Face of a Sphere

A sphere has only 1 face which is curved. It has no edges and no corners. A ball, marbles are examples of a sphere.


5. Cone: A cone looks like a top or the cap of a circus clown.

Edges, Faces and Vertices of a Cone

It has 1 flat face which is a circular region and one curved surface. It has 1 edge and 1 corner.


Edges, Faces and Vertices of a Triangular Prism



6. Triangular Prism: A triangular prism has 5 faces, 6 corners (vertices) and 9 edges.

Edges, Faces and Vertices of a Pyramid



7. Pyramid: A pyramid has 5 faces, 5 corners (vertices) and 8 edges.


Worksheet on Types of Three-Dimensional Shapes:

1. Complete the following table:

Solid

Number of Faces

Number of Vertices

Number of Edges

(i) Cube

_____

_____

_____

(ii) Cuboid

_____

_____

_____

(iii) Cone

_____

_____

_____

(iv) Sphere

_____

_____

_____

(v) Cylinder

_____

_____

_____

(vi) Pyramid

_____

_____

_____

Answer:

1. 

Three-Dimensional Shapes


2. (i) Name all the edges in the following cuboid and also name the faces which intersect to form these edges. 

(ii) Which edges have the same length?

Cuboid Worksheet

2. (i) Name all the edges in the following cuboid and also name the faces which intersect to form these edges. 

(ii) Which edges have the same length?

Answer:

2.  (i) AB; ABCD and ABFE, DC; DABC and DCGH

         BC; BCDA and BEGC, DA, DABC and ADHE

         EF; EABF and EFGH, FG FGCB and FGHE

        GH; GHDC and GHEF, EH EHDA and EHGF

        CG; CBIG and AEFB, DH DHGC and HDAE

        AE; AEHD and AEFB; BF BFGC and BFEA

(ii)  AB, EF, DC, HG;

      AD, EH, BC, FG;

      AE, DH, BF, CG.


3. How many cylinders can be formed from a paper of 20 cm by 25 cm with the help of folding? What could be the height of the cylinders?

Answer:

3. Two, one is 20 cm hight another is 25 cm hight.


Cuboid Question

4. In the following figure of a cuboid, write all its:

(i) Surfaces

(ii) Edges

(iii) Corners/Vertices

Answer:

4. (i) Surfaces: ABCG, FIDE, CDEG, ABIF, AGEF, BCDI

(ii) Edges; AB, BC, CG, AG, FI, ID, DE, EF, AF, GE, BI, CD

(iii) Corners/Vertices; A, B, C, G, D, E, F, I

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