# Roman Numerals

How to read and write roman numerals?

Hundreds of year ago, the Romans had a system of numbers which had only seven symbols. Each symbol had a different value and there was no symbol for 0.

The symbol of Roman Numerals and their values are:

Romans used different combinations of symbols to write numbers using adding and subtraction.

For reading and writing numbers upto 50 we need only the first 4 symbols.

I V X L

Rules for the first five symbols

Multiplication Rule:

When a symbol is repeated in succession, we multiply the value of the numeral by the number of times it is repeated.

A symbol cannot be repeated more than three times in succession.

For example:

II = 1 × 2 = 2

XX = 10 × 2 = 20

XXX = 10 × 3 = 30

We cannot write 40 as XXXX.

The symbol cannot be repeated more than three times.

Writing a smaller number to the right of a larger number means the numbers have to be added.

For example:

VI = 5 + 1 = 6

XI = 10 + 1 = 11

XII = 10 + 1 + 1 = 12

Subtraction Rule:

Writing a smaller number to the left of a larger number means that the smaller number has to be subtracted from the larger number. The symbol 1 can be used for subtraction from V and X only. The symbol X can be subtracted only from L and C.

For example:

IV = 5 - 1 = 4

IX = 10 - 1 = 9

XL = 50 - 10 = 40

The symbol V cannot be repeated or subtracted.

We do not repeat V twice to get 10. We already have a symbol for 10. So VV for writing 10 is not correct.

We do not subtract 5 from any symbol. VX is not correct.

A list of Roman Numerals and their value are given below:

Writing Numbers in Roman Numerals:

For example:

1. Write the Roman Numerals for 27. Break up the number into Tens and Ones.

27 = 20 + 7

Write the symbol for 20 (XX) and place the symbol for 7 (VII) after it.

27 convert roman numerals as XXVII

2. Write the Roman numeral number for 43.

43 = 40 + 3

Symbol for 40 XL

Symbol for 3 III

Roman Numerals for 43 is XLIII.

Look out for a subtraction operation. Do the subtraction before adding the numbers.

For example:

1. XXIV I = 1 V = 5 IV = 4

XX = 20

IV = 4

Hindu –Arabic numeral for XXIV is 24.

2. XIX IX = 9

Hindu –Arabic number for XIX = 19

3. XXXII

In this example no subtraction is needed.

XXX = 30

II = 2

Hindu – Arabic number for XXXII = 32

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• ### Worksheet on Roman Numerals |Roman Numerals|Symbols for Roman Numerals

Practice the worksheet on roman numerals or numbers. This sheet will encourage the students to practice about the symbols for roman numerals and their values. Write the number for the following: (a) VII (b) IX (c) XI (d) XIV (e) XIX (f) XXVII (g) XXIX (h) XII

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