Subtraction of whole numbers is discussed in the following two steps to subtract one large number from another large number:
Step I:
We arrange the given numbers in columns, ones under ones, tens under tens, hundred under hundreds and so on.
Step II:
Beginning with the ones, we go on subtracting column wise, borrowing if necessary, from the next column to the left.
We borrow from millions column to hundred thousands column from hundred thousands column to ten thousands column from ten thousands column to thousands column from thousands column to hundreds column from hundreds column to tens column and from tens column to ones column.
For Example:
1. Subtract 2478652 from 8364579.
Solution:
We arrange the given numbers in columns (minuend on the top and subtrahend under it) and subtract as under:
8364579
 2478652
We need to subtract the ones column and the tens column as usual because here we don’t need to borrow numbers as the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.
Now we borrow 1 million from 8 millions. Then we get (8  1) = 7 millions in the millions column.
Now in place of 3 hundred thousands we have 13 hundred thousands in the hundred thousands column. Now borrow 1 hundred thousand from 13 hundred thousands. Then we get (13  1) = 12 hundred thousands in the hundred thousands column.
Then in place of 6 ten thousands we have 16 ten thousands in the ten thousands column. Now borrow 1 ten thousand from 16 ten thousands. Then we get (16  1) = 15 ten thousands in the ten thousands column.
Again, in place of 4 thousands we have 14 thousands in the thousands column. Now borrow 1 thousand from 14 thousands. Then we get (14  1) = 13 thousands in the thousands column.
5 hundreds + 1 thousand borrowed become 15 hundreds in the hundreds column.
Therefore, now we just need to subtract after borrowing the numbers since we observe that the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.
2. Subtract 1076799 from 1205620.
Solution:
We arrange the given numbers in columns (minuend on the top and subtrahend under it) and subtract as under:
1205620
 1076799
In this subtraction problem we observe that upto ten thousands column all the bottom numbers are bigger than the numbers on the top.
So, we will start borrowing numbers from hundred thousands column.
Now we borrow 1 hundred thousand from 2 hundred thousands. Then we get (2  1) = 1 hundred thousand in the hundred thousands column.
Now in place of 0 ten thousand we have 10 ten thousands in the ten thousands column. Now borrow 1 ten thousand from 10 ten thousands. Then we get (10  1) = 9 ten thousands in the ten thousands column.
Then in place of 5 thousands we have 15 thousands in the thousands column. Now borrow 1 thousand from 15 thousands. Then we get (15  1) = 14 thousands in the thousands column.
Again, in place of 6 hundreds we have 16 hundreds in the hundreds column. Now borrow 1 hundred from 16 hundreds. Then we get (16  1) = 15 hundreds in the hundreds column.
Now in place of 2 tens we have 12 tens in the tens column. Now borrow one ten from 12 tens. Then we get (12  1) = 11 tens in the tens column.
0 ones + 1 ten borrowed become 10 ones in the ones column.
Therefore, now we just need to subtract after borrowing the numbers since we observe that the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.
Note: We can subtract 7digit, 8digit and 9digit numbers in the same way as we subtract 5digit and 6digit numbers.
We know, the number which is to be subtracted is known as 'subtrahend' and the number from which it is subtracted is known 'minuend' and the answer we get is known as the 'difference' the number is placed below the number from which it is subtracted.
● Subtraction Of Whole Numbers.
● Multiplication Of Whole Numbers.
● Properties Of Multiplication.
5th Grade Math Problems
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