# Subtraction of Whole Numbers

Subtraction of numbers with more than five digits can be done in the same way as we have learnt to do subtraction of smaller number earlier. We arrange the numbers one below the other in place-value columns. We start subtracting them one by one from the right most column and borrow if required, from the column on left.

Subtraction of whole numbers is discussed in the following two steps to subtract one large number from another large number:

Step I:

We arrange the given numbers in columns, ones under ones, tens under tens, hundred under hundreds and so on.

Step II:

Beginning with the ones, we go on subtracting column wise, borrowing if necessary, from the next column to the left.

We borrow from millions column to hundred thousands column from hundred thousands column to ten thousands column from ten thousands column to thousands column from thousands column to hundreds column from hundreds column to tens column and from tens column to ones column.

For Example:

1. Subtract 2478652 from 8364579.

Solution:

We arrange the given numbers in columns (minuend on the top and subtrahend under it) and subtract as under:

8364579

- 2478652

We need to subtract the ones column and the tens column as usual because here we don’t need to borrow numbers as the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.

Now we borrow 1 million from 8 millions. Then we get (8 - 1) = 7 millions in the millions column.

Now in place of 3 hundred thousands we have 13 hundred thousands in the hundred thousands column. Now borrow 1 hundred thousand from 13 hundred thousands. Then we get (13 - 1) = 12 hundred thousands in the hundred thousands column.

Then in place of 6 ten thousands we have 16 ten thousands in the ten thousands column. Now borrow 1 ten thousand from 16 ten thousands. Then we get (16 - 1) = 15 ten thousands in the ten thousands column.

Again, in place of 4 thousands we have 14 thousands in the thousands column. Now borrow 1 thousand from 14 thousands. Then we get (14 - 1) = 13 thousands in the thousands column.

5 hundreds + 1 thousand borrowed become 15 hundreds in the hundreds column.

Therefore, now we just need to subtract after borrowing the  numbers since we observe that the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.

2. Subtract 1076799 from 1205620.

Solution:

We arrange the given numbers in columns (minuend on the top and subtrahend under it) and subtract as under:

1205620

- 1076799

In this subtraction problem we observe that upto ten thousands column all the bottom numbers are bigger than the numbers on the top.

So, we will start borrowing numbers from hundred thousands column.

Now we borrow 1 hundred thousand from 2 hundred thousands. Then we get (2 - 1) = 1 hundred thousand in the hundred thousands column.

Now in place of 0 ten thousand we have 10 ten thousands in the ten thousands column. Now borrow 1 ten thousand from 10 ten thousands. Then we get (10 - 1) = 9 ten thousands in the ten thousands column.

Then in place of 5 thousands we have 15 thousands in the thousands column. Now borrow 1 thousand from 15 thousands. Then we get (15 - 1) = 14 thousands in the thousands column.

Again, in place of 6 hundreds we have 16 hundreds in the hundreds column. Now borrow 1 hundred from 16 hundreds. Then we get (16 - 1) = 15 hundreds in the hundreds column.

Now in place of 2 tens we have 12 tens in the tens column. Now borrow one ten from 12 tens. Then we get (12 - 1) = 11 tens in the tens column.

0 ones + 1 ten borrowed become 10 ones in the ones column.

Therefore, now we just need to subtract after borrowing the numbers since we observe that the bottom numbers are smaller than the numbers on the top.

3. Subtract 3214658 from 5645789

Solution:

Hence, 5645789 – 3214658 = 2431131.

2. Subtract 65248907 from 86165281

Solution:

Hence, 86165281 – 65248907 = 20916374

Word Problems on Subtraction of Whole Numbers:

A factory produced 313650000 candies in the month of December for Christmas. Out of these 105224010 were of lavender flavor. How many of the candies were not of lavender flavor?

Solution:

Number of candies produced = 313650000

Number of candies of lavender flavor = 105224010

Number of candies not having lavender flavor

Hence, the total number of candies not having lavender flavor = 208425990.

Solve the given Word Problems on Subtraction of Whole Numbers:

1. A country has a population of 651399888. If 304628040 are females, then how many are males?

Answer: 346771848

2. 1432884 people visited the international book fair on Saturday and Sunday. The number of people visiting the fair on weekdays was 89745 less than that on weekend. How many people visited the fair on weekdays?

Answer: 1343139

3. Find the number that is:

(i) 30000 less than 183645800

(ii) 1200000 less than 483625900

Answer:

(i) 183615800

(ii) 482425900

Note: We can subtract 7-digit, 8-digit and 9-digit numbers in the same way as we subtract 5-digit and 6-digit numbers.

We know, the number which is to be subtracted is known as 'subtrahend' and the number from which it is subtracted is known 'minuend' and the answer we get is known as the 'difference' the number is placed below the number from which it is subtracted.

● Operations On Whole Numbers

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