Representation of Numbers on the Abacus

We will learn representation of numbers on the abacus.

An abacus is a flat table, with spikes.

In these spikes small beads move smoothly as shown.

Spike Abacus Math

Numbers on Abacus:

This abacus is having two spikes.

Spike on the left is Tens spike and spike on the right is Ones spike.

Tens Spike and Once Spike

The number of beads placed in Ones spike reads Ones number and the number of beads in Tens spike reads Tens number.

Number 1 on Abacus

Showing 1 at Ones place and 0 at Tens place. So, the number is 0 Tens and 1 Ones - 1 Therefore, it is showing the number 1.

Number 10 on Abacus

Showing 0 at Ones place and 1 at Terns place. So, the number is One Tens and 0 Ones - 10 Therefore, it is showing the number 10.

Number 32 on Abacus

Showing 2 at Ones place and 3 at Tens place. So, it is showing the number 32.

We can show 100 on an abacus with three vertical rods. The rods represent place value of hundreds, tens and ones. We add beads on the rods to show different number. Each rod can hold up to 9 beads.

Number 9 on the Abacus

This shows 9 ones

10 Ones on the Abacus

If we add 1 more to 9 it is 10 ones. Regroup 10 ones as 1 ten.

99 on the Abacus

This shows 9 tens and 9 ones. The number is 99.

100 on the Abacus

If we add 1 more to 99 it is 10 tens. Regroup 10 tens as 1 hundred.

1 bead in the hundreds place represents 1 hundred.


To read a 3-digit number first read the hundreds place and then the last two digits place.


Let us take this example:

Number 542 on the Abacus

5 beads in the hundreds place means 5 hundreds.

4 beads in the tens place means 4 tens.

2 beads in the ones place means 2 ones.


The number can be written as 542 = 5 hundreds 4 tens and 2 ones

Five hundred forty-two  

Questions and Answers on Representation of Numbers on the Abacus:

1. Read the following numbers on the abacus and write the number names in the given space.

Number 127 on the Abacus
Number 207 on the Abacus
Number 329 on the Abacus


1. (i) One hundred twenty-seven.

(ii) Two hundred seven.

(iii) Three hundred twenty-nine.

2. Read the given number on the abacus and fill in the blanks. One has been done for you.

Number 218 on the Abacus
Number 386 on the Abacus
Number 450 on the Abacus
Number 655 on the Abacus
Number 190 on the Abacus
Number 728 on the Abacus


2. (ii) 3 hundreds; 8 tens; 6 ones

(iii) 4 hundreds; 5 tens; 0 ones

(iv) 6 hundreds; 5 tens; 5 ones

(v) 1 hundreds; 9 tens; 0 ones

(vi) 7 hundreds; 2 tens; 8 ones

3. Draw beads to show the following numbers on the abacus.

Number 151 on the Abacus
Number 404 on the Abacus
Number 616 on the Abacus
Number 987 on the Abacus
Number 990 on the Abacus
Number 567 on the Abacus



151 on the Abacus
404 on the Abacus
616 on the Abacus
987 on the Abacus
990 on the Abacus
567 on the Abacus

4. Read the numbers shown on the abacus. Write the number and the number name in the given space.

Number 111 on the Abacus
Number 388 on the Abacus
Number 406 on the Abacus
Number 808 on the Abacus
Number 776 on the Abacus
Number 642 on the Abacus


4. (i) 111; One hundred one

(ii) 388; Three hundred eighty-eight.

(iii) 406; Four hundred six

(iv) 808; Eight hundred eight

(v) 776; Seven hundred seventy-six

(vi) 642; Six hundred forty-two

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