# Concept of Multiplication

Multiplication is repeated addition of a number to itself.

Study the following example to understand it:

Example: Take 3 groups of 2 pens each as shown below.

How many pens are there in all?

(2 + 2 + 2) = 6 pens in all Thus, 2 three times = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.

We write it as 2 × 3 = 6.       ['×' is the symbol of multiplication.]

We say that 2 multiplied by 3 gives 6

or 3 times 2 is 6

or 2 into 3 is equal to 6.

We also say that the product of 2 and 3 is 6. 2 x 3 = 6 is a Multiplication Fact.

Form the above discussion,

We observe that multiplication is repeated addition of the same number.

In a multiplication sum, the number by which we multiply is called multiplier, the number which is multiplied is called multiplicand and the answer is called product.

 2 x 3 = 6 Multiplicand Multiplier Product

1. Write the multiplication fact for each of the following. One has been done for you.

2. Fill in the empty boxes. One has been done for you.

 (i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12﻿4﻿ × 3 = 12 (ii) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (iii) 5 + 5 + 5 = 15﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (iv) 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 24﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (v) 12 + 12 = 24﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (vi) 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 40﻿_____ × _____ = _____

3. Express the following in the form of repeated addition. One has been dine fir you.

 (i) 6 × 5 →6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 (ii) 3 × 5 →_______________ (iii) 8 × 3 →_______________ (iv) 7 × 4 →_______________ (v) 9 × 2 →_______________ (vi) 5 × 7 →_______________ (vii) 4 × 9 →_______________ (viii) 5 × 5 →_______________

 (i) 9 + 9 + 9 (a) 7 × 5 (ii) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 (b) 9 × 3 (iii) 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 (c) 8 × 6 (iv) 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 (d) 4 × 4

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