# Concept of Multiplication

Multiplication is repeated addition of a number to itself.

Study the following example to understand it:

Example: Take 3 groups of 2 pens each as shown below.

How many pens are there in all?

(2 + 2 + 2) = 6 pens in all Thus, 2 three times = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.

We write it as 2 × 3 = 6.       ['×' is the symbol of multiplication.]

We say that 2 multiplied by 3 gives 6

or 3 times 2 is 6

or 2 into 3 is equal to 6.

We also say that the product of 2 and 3 is 6. 2 x 3 = 6 is a Multiplication Fact.

Form the above discussion,

We observe that multiplication is repeated addition of the same number.

In a multiplication sum, the number by which we multiply is called multiplier, the number which is multiplied is called multiplicand and the answer is called product.

 2 x 3 = 6 Multiplicand Multiplier Product

1. Write the multiplication fact for each of the following. One has been done for you.

 (i) 3 × 2 = 6 (ii) _____ × _____ = _____ (iii) _____ × _____ = _____ (iv) _____ × _____ = _____

2. Fill in the empty boxes. One has been done for you.

 (i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12﻿4﻿ × 3 = 12 (ii) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (iii) 5 + 5 + 5 = 15﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (iv) 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 24﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (v) 12 + 12 = 24﻿_____ × _____ = _____ (vi) 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 40﻿_____ × _____ = _____

3. Express the following in the form of repeated addition. One has been dine fir you.

 (i) 6 × 5 →6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 (ii) 3 × 5 →_______________ (iii) 8 × 3 →_______________ (iv) 7 × 4 →_______________ (v) 9 × 2 →_______________ (vi) 5 × 7 →_______________ (vii) 4 × 9 →_______________ (viii) 5 × 5 →_______________

 (i) 9 + 9 + 9 (a) 7 × 5 (ii) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 (b) 9 × 3 (iii) 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 (c) 8 × 6 (iv) 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 (d) 4 × 4

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