Multiplication is repeated addition of a number to itself.
Study the following example to understand it:
Example: Take 3 groups of 2 pens each as shown below.
How many pens are there in all?
(2 + 2 + 2) = 6 pens in all Thus, 2 three times = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.
We write it as 2 × 3 = 6. ['×' is the symbol of multiplication.]
We say that 2 multiplied by 3 gives 6
or 3 times 2 is 6
or 2 into 3 is equal to 6.
We also say that the product of 2 and 3 is 6. 2 x 3 = 6 is a Multiplication Fact.
Form the above discussion,
We observe that multiplication is repeated addition of the same number.
In a multiplication sum, the number by which we multiply is called multiplier, the number which is multiplied is called multiplicand and the answer is called product.
2 |
x |
3 |
= |
6 |
Multiplicand |
Multiplier |
Product |
1. Write the multiplication fact for each of the following. One has been done for you.
2. Fill in the empty boxes. One has been done for you.
(i) |
4 + 4 + 4 = 12 4 × 3 = 12 |
(ii) |
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 _____ × _____ = _____ |
(iii) |
5 + 5 + 5 = 15 _____ × _____ = _____ |
(iv) |
6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 24 _____ × _____ = _____ |
(v) |
12 + 12 = 24 _____ × _____ = _____ |
(vi) |
8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 40 _____ × _____ = _____ |
3. Express the following in the form of repeated addition. One has been dine fir you.
(i) |
6 × 5 → 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 |
(ii) |
3 × 5 → _______________ |
(iii) |
8 × 3 → _______________ |
(iv) |
7 × 4 → _______________ |
(v) |
9 × 2 → _______________ |
(vi) |
5 × 7 → _______________ |
(vii) |
4 × 9 → _______________ |
(viii) |
5 × 5 → _______________ |
4. Match the correct answer:
(i) |
9 + 9 + 9 |
(a) |
7 × 5 |
(ii) |
4 + 4 + 4 + 4 |
(b) |
9 × 3 |
(iii) |
7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 |
(c) |
8 × 6 |
(iv) |
8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 |
(d) |
4 × 4 |
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