Terms Related to Statistics

The various terms related to statistics are discussed using examples.


The collection of information in the form of numerical figures, regarding different aspects of life is called data. The data can be about population, birth, death, temperature of place during a week, marks scored in the class, runs scored in different matches, etc. We need to analyze this data.

For Example:

The following table gives the data regarding the number of students opting for different activities.

Activities Dance Music Art Sports
No. of students 15 25 10 40

Raw data:

When some information is collected randomly and presented, it is called a raw data.

For Example:

Given below are the marks (out of 25) obtained by 20 students of class VII A in mathematics in a test.

18, 16, 12, 10, 5, 5, 4, 19, 20, 10, 12, 12, 15, 15, 15, 8, 8, 8, 8, 16


Each entry collected as a numerical fact in the given data is called an observation.


The raw data when put in ascending or descending order of magnitude is called an array or arrayed data.

For Example:

The above data is arranged in ascending order and represented as:

4, 5, 5, 8, 8, 8, 8, 10, 10, 12, 12, 12, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 18, 19, 20


The difference between the highest and the lowest value of the observation is called the range of the data.

In the above data,

Highest marks obtained = 20

Lowest marks obtained = 4

Therefore, range = 20 - 4 = 16


It is calculated by dividing the sum of all the observation by the total number of observations. If x, x1, x3, ……… xn are n observations then

Arithmetic mean = (x1 + x2 + xn, ……………. xn)/n = (∑xi)/n

[∑ is the Greek letter sigma and is used to denote summation]

For Example:

The heights of 10 girls were measured in cm and results are as follows:

142, 149, 136, 148, 129, 140, 148, 145, 150, 133

(i) What is the height of the tallest girl?


The height of the tallest girl is 150 cm.

(ii) What is the height of the shortest girl?


The height of the shortest girl is 129 cm

(iii) What is the range of the data?


Range = 150 cm – 129 cm = 21 cm

(iv) Find the mean height.


The mean height = (142 + 149 + 136 + 148 + 129 + 140 + 148 + 145 + 150 + 133)/10

= 1420/10 = 142 cm

(v) How many girls are there whose height is less than the mean height?


There are 4 girls whose height is less than the mean height, i.e., the girl having heights 136 cm, 129 cm, 133 cm, 140 cm.

The terms related to statistics are data, raw data, array, range, mean are explained above using examples.


From Terms Related to Statistics to HOME PAGE

Didn't find what you were looking for? Or want to know more information about Math Only Math. Use this Google Search to find what you need.

New! Comments

Have your say about what you just read! Leave me a comment in the box below. Ask a Question or Answer a Question.

Share this page: What’s this?

Recent Articles

  1. Shifting of Digits in a Number |Exchanging the Digits to Another Place

    May 19, 24 06:35 PM

    Shifting of Digits in a Number
    What is the Effect of shifting of digits in a number? Let us observe two numbers 1528 and 5182. We see that the digits are the same, but places are different in these two numbers. Thus, if the digits…

    Read More

  2. Formation of Greatest and Smallest Numbers | Arranging the Numbers

    May 19, 24 03:36 PM

    Formation of Greatest and Smallest Numbers
    the greatest number is formed by arranging the given digits in descending order and the smallest number by arranging them in ascending order. The position of the digit at the extreme left of a number…

    Read More

  3. Formation of Numbers with the Given Digits |Making Numbers with Digits

    May 19, 24 03:19 PM

    In formation of numbers with the given digits we may say that a number is an arranged group of digits. Numbers may be formed with or without the repetition of digits.

    Read More

  4. Arranging Numbers | Ascending Order | Descending Order |Compare Digits

    May 19, 24 02:23 PM

    Arranging Numbers
    We know, while arranging numbers from the smallest number to the largest number, then the numbers are arranged in ascending order. Vice-versa while arranging numbers from the largest number to the sma…

    Read More

  5. Comparison of Numbers | Compare Numbers Rules | Examples of Comparison

    May 19, 24 01:26 PM

    Rules for Comparison of Numbers
    Rule I: We know that a number with more digits is always greater than the number with less number of digits. Rule II: When the two numbers have the same number of digits, we start comparing the digits…

    Read More