# Multiplication is Repeated Addition

We know multiplication is repeated addition. Let us have a quick recall of what we have learnt about multiplication.

There are 5 groups of 2 balloons. We can say 5 times 2.

We can skip count to get the total when there are equal groups of objects.

Skip count 5 times 2, we will get 10.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10

We write 5 times 2 = 10

Repeated addition means Multiplication. We use ‘×’ symbol to show multiplication. The result of two or more numbers when multiplied is called the product.

5 × 2 = 10

Let us take another example. There are 2 groups with 4 leaves in each. We can say 2 groups of 4 or 2 times 4. We can skip count 2 times 4 to get the total.

4 + 4 = 8

We write, 2 × 4 = 8

Consider the following:

I. Andrea made sandwiches for 12 people. When they shared it equally, each of them got ½ a sandwich. How many sandwiches did Andrea make?

We know each people will get ½ a sandwich.

Multiplication:

½ × 12

= $$\frac{12}{2}$$

= 6

Therefore, Andrea made 6 sandwiches and shared with 12 people each of them got ½ a sandwich.

II. Doreen then poured out a few bottles of fresh orange juice equally among the 8 people. Each of them got $$\frac{3}{4}$$ of a glass. How many bottles of fresh orange juice did Andrea use?

Multiplication:

¾× 8

= $$\frac{24}{4}$$

= 6

Doreen used 6 bottles of fresh orange juice.

So, would you like to still continue adding or would you rather multiply.

III.

In the above example 4 is repeated 5 times. Adding the same number is called repeated addition.

Since from the above examples, we can understand clearly that multiplication is faster than repeated addition.

Multiplication is Adding Equal Groups.

1. If Sara has 3 cats how can she count quickly the numbers of legs 3 cats have in all?

3 groups of 4 legs; 3 times 4 = 12

2. If a teacher has 5 books and there are 3 teachers, how many books do they have in all?

3 times 5 = 15 ; 3 × 5 = 15

The sign ‘×’ is used to show multiplication. The result of multiplication is called product.

Questions and Answers on Multiplication is Repeated Addition:

1. Count the objects in each group and fill in the boxes. One has been done for you.

 (i) 4 groups of 3 = 4 × 3 (ii) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (iii) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (iv) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (v) __ groups of __ = __ × __

1. (ii) 4 × 1

(iii) 4 × 2

(iv) 3 × 4

(v) 2 × 5

2. Write the addition and multiplication facts. One has been done for you.

(i) 3 times 4 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 3 × 4

(ii) 5 times 2 = ___________ = __________

(iii) 7 times 3 = ___________ = __________

(iv) 4 times 1 = ___________ = __________

(v) 2 times 5 = ___________ = __________

(vi) 3 times 3 = ___________ = __________

(vii) 6 times 4 = ___________ = __________

2. (ii) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 5 × 2

(iii) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 7 × 3

(iv) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4 × 1

(v) 5 + 5 = 2 × 5

(vi) 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 × 3

(vii) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 6 × 4

3. Write the multiplication facts. One has been done for you.

(i) 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 4 × 5

(ii) 3 + 3 = _____ × _____

(iii) 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = _____ × _____

(iv) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = _____ × _____

(v) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = _____ × _____

(vi) 1 + 1 + 1 = _____ × _____

(vii) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = _____ × _____

3. (ii) 2 × 3

(iii) 6 × 5

(iv) 5 × 4

(v) 6 × 2

(vi) 4 × 1

(vii) 8 × 3