We know multiplication is repeated addition. Let us have a quick recall of what we have learnt about multiplication.

There are 5 groups of 2 balloons. We can say 5 times 2.

We can skip count to get the total when there are equal groups of objects.

Skip count 5 times 2, we will get 10.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10

We write 5 times 2 = 10

Repeated addition means Multiplication. We use ‘×’ symbol to show multiplication. The result of two or more numbers when multiplied is called the product.

5 × 2 = 10

Let us take another example. There are 2 groups with 4 leaves in each. We can say 2 groups of 4 or 2 times 4. We can skip count 2 times 4 to get the total.

4 + 4 = 8

We write, 2 × 4 = 8

Consider the following:

I. Andrea made sandwiches for 12 people. When they shared it equally, each of them got ½ a sandwich. How many sandwiches did Andrea make?

We know each people will get ½ a sandwich.

Multiplication:

½ × 12

= $$\frac{12}{2}$$

= 6

Therefore, Andrea made 6 sandwiches and shared with 12 people each of them got ½ a sandwich.

II. Doreen then poured out a few bottles of fresh orange juice equally among the 8 people. Each of them got $$\frac{3}{4}$$ of a glass. How many bottles of fresh orange juice did Andrea use?

Multiplication:

¾× 8

= $$\frac{24}{4}$$

= 6

Doreen used 6 bottles of fresh orange juice.

So, would you like to still continue adding or would you rather multiply.

III.

In the above example 4 is repeated 5 times. Adding the same number is called repeated addition.

Since from the above examples, we can understand clearly that multiplication is faster than repeated addition.

1. If Sara has 3 cats how can she count quickly the numbers of legs 3 cats have in all?

3 groups of 4 legs; 3 times 4 = 12

2. If a teacher has 5 books and there are 3 teachers, how many books do they have in all?

3 times 5 = 15 ; 3 × 5 = 15

The sign ‘×’ is used to show multiplication. The result of multiplication is called product.

1. Count the objects in each group and fill in the boxes. One has been done for you.

 (i) 4 groups of 3 = 4 × 3 (ii) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (iii) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (iv) __ groups of __ = __ × __ (v) __ groups of __ = __ × __

1. (ii) 4 × 1

(iii) 4 × 2

(iv) 3 × 4

(v) 2 × 5

2. Write the addition and multiplication facts. One has been done for you.

(i) 3 times 4 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 3 × 4

(ii) 5 times 2 = ___________ = __________

(iii) 7 times 3 = ___________ = __________

(iv) 4 times 1 = ___________ = __________

(v) 2 times 5 = ___________ = __________

(vi) 3 times 3 = ___________ = __________

(vii) 6 times 4 = ___________ = __________

2. (ii) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 5 × 2

(iii) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 7 × 3

(iv) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4 × 1

(v) 5 + 5 = 2 × 5

(vi) 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 × 3

(vii) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 6 × 4

3. Write the multiplication facts. One has been done for you.

(i) 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 4 × 5

(ii) 3 + 3 = _____ × _____

(iii) 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = _____ × _____

(iv) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = _____ × _____

(v) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = _____ × _____

(vi) 1 + 1 + 1 = _____ × _____

(vii) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = _____ × _____

3. (ii) 2 × 3

(iii) 6 × 5

(iv) 5 × 4

(v) 6 × 2

(vi) 4 × 1

(vii) 8 × 3

4. Fill in to show that multiplication is repeated addition-

(i) 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5   = __________

6 × 5                           = __________

(ii) 9 + 9    = __________

2 x 9    = __________

(iii) 10 + 10 + 10 = __________

3 × 10 = __________

(iv) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = __________

5 × 2                   = __________

(v) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = __________

4 x 4 = __________

(vi) 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = __________

5 × 6                   = __________

(vii) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = __________

6 × 3                         = __________

(viii) 7 + 7 + 7  = __________

3 × 7        = __________

 (i) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = _____          4 twos are _____ (ii) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = _____          4 fours are _____ (iii) 3 + 3 + 3 = _____          3 threes are _____ (iv) 5 + 5          2 fives are _____

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