# Union of Sets

Definition of Union of Sets:

Union of two given sets is the smallest set which contains all the elements of both the sets.

To find the union of two given sets A and B is a set which consists of all the elements of A and all the elements of B such that no element is repeated.

The symbol for denoting union of sets is ‘’.

For example;

Let set A = {2, 4, 5, 6}
and set B = {4, 6, 7, 8}

Taking every element of both the sets A and B, without repeating any element, we get a new set = {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

This new set contains all the elements of set A and all the elements of set B with no repetition of elements and is named as union of set A and B.

The symbol used for the union of two sets is ‘’.

Therefore, symbolically, we write union of the two sets A and B is A ∪ B which means A union B.

Therefore, A ∪ B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B}

Solved examples to find union of two given sets:

1. If = {1, 3, 7, 5} and B = {3, 7, 8, 9}. Find union of two set A and B.

Solution:

A ∪ B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9}
No element is repeated in the union of two sets. The common elements 3, 7 are taken only once.

2. Let X = {a, e, i, o, u} and Y = {ф}. Find union of two given sets X and Y.

Solution:

X ∪ Y = {a, e, i, o, u}

Therefore, union of any set with an empty set is the set itself.

3. If set P = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, set Q = {0, 3, 6, 9, 12} and set R = {2, 4, 6, 8}.

(i) Find the union of sets P and Q

(ii) Find the union of two set P and R

(iii) Find the union of the given sets Q and R

Solution:

(i) Union of sets P and Q is P ∪ Q

The smallest set which contains all the elements of set P and all the elements of set Q is {0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12}.

(ii) Union of two set P and R is P ∪ R

The smallest set which contains all the elements of set P and all the elements of set R is {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.

(iii) Union of the given sets Q and R is Q ∪ R

The smallest set which contains all the elements of set Q and all the elements of set R is {0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12}.

Notes:

A and B are the subsets of A ∪ B

The union of sets is commutative, i.e., A ∪ B = B ∪ A.

The operations are performed when the sets are expressed in roster form.

Some properties of the operation of union:

(i) A∪B = B∪A                      (Commutative law)

(ii) A∪(B∪C) = (A∪B)∪C         (Associative law)

(iii) A ∪ ϕ = A                      (Law of identity element, is the identity of )

(iv) A∪A = A                        (Idempotent law)

(v) U∪A = U                        (Law of ) ∪ is the universal set.

Notes:

A ∪ ϕ = ϕ ∪ A = A i.e. union of any set with the empty set is always the set itself.

Set Theory

Sets

Objects Form a Set

Elements of a Set

Properties of Sets

Representation of a Set

Different Notations in Sets

Standard Sets of Numbers

Types of Sets

Pairs of Sets

Subset

Subsets of a Given Set

Operations on Sets

Intersection of Sets

Difference of two Sets

Complement of a Set

Cardinal number of a set

Cardinal Properties of Sets

Venn Diagrams