We will discuss here about the process of Multiplication of a matrix by a number.
The multiplication of a matrix A by a number k gives a matrix of the same order as A, in which all the elements are k times the elements of A.
Example:
Let A = \(\begin{bmatrix} 10 & 5\\ -3 & -7 \end{bmatrix}\) and B = \(\begin{bmatrix} -2 & 9\\ 0 & 3\\ -1 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\)
Then, kA = k\(\begin{bmatrix} 10 & 5\\ -3 & -7 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} 10k & 5k\\ -3k & -7k \end{bmatrix}\) and
kB = k\(\begin{bmatrix} -2 & 9\\ 0 & 3\\ -1 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} -2k & 9k\\ 0 & 3k\\ -1k & 5k \end{bmatrix}\)
Similarly,
\(\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ c & d \end{bmatrix}\) = \(\frac{1}{k}\)\(\begin{bmatrix} ka & kb\\ kc & kd \end{bmatrix}\).
Solved examples on Multiplication of a Matrix by a Number
(Scalar Multiplication):
1. If A = \(\begin{bmatrix} 10 & -9\\ -1 & 4 \end{bmatrix}\), find 4A.
Solution:
4A = 4\(\begin{bmatrix} 10 & -9\\ -1 & 4 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} 4 × 10 & 4 × (-9)\\ 4 × (-1) & 4 × 4 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} 40 & -36\\ -4 & 16 \end{bmatrix}\)
2. If M = \(\begin{bmatrix} 2 & -3\\ -4 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\), find -5A.
Solution:
-5M = -5\(\begin{bmatrix} 2 & -3\\ -4 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} (-5) × 2 & (-5) × (-3)\\ (-5) × (-4) & (-5) × 5 \end{bmatrix}\)
= \(\begin{bmatrix} -10 & 15\\ 20 & -25 \end{bmatrix}\)
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