We will discuss here about the classification of matrices.
Matrices are classified according to the number of rows and columns, and the specific elements therein.
(i) Row Matrix: A matrix which has exactly one row is called a row matrix.
For example,
The above two matrices are row matrices because each has only one row.
(ii) Column Matrix: A matrix which has exactly one column is called a column matrix.
For example,
The above two matrices are column matrices because each has only one column.
(iii) Rectangular Matrix: A matrix of the order m × n in which m ≠ n is called a rectangular matrix.
For example,
The above three are rectangular matrices because in each of the matrices, number of rows ≠ number of columns.
(iv) Zero Matrix or Null Matrix: A matrix is called a zero matrix if all its elements are zeros.
For example,
The above three matrices are all zero matrices of different orders.
(v) Square Matrix: A matrix of the order m × n in which m = n is called a square matrix of order m (or n).
For example,
The above two matrices are square matrices because in each of the matrices, number of rows = number of columns.
(vi) Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix: A square matrix in which all elements in the leading diagonal are 1 and the other elements are zeros, is called a unit matrix.
For example,
The above two matrices are unit matrices of order 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 respectively
because the elements in the leading diagonals (shown by broken lines) are 1 and
the rest of the elements are zeros.
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