Some basic multiplication facts are needed to follow for multiplying numbers. The repeated addition of the same number is expressed by multiplication in short.
Look at the following pattern. there are 5 prints of hand. One hand is a group of five fingers.
How many groups of 5 fingers are there?
We can say that, there are 5 groups of 5 fingers.
Let us take some more example of equal groups.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv) There are 5 groups of 2 marbles each.
The total number of marbles of 5 groups may be known by writing 2 in 5 groups or by adding 2 five time as 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10
This number 10 can also be found by multiplying 2 × 5. Thus, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 = 2 × 5 = 10
Hence, repeated addition of 2 five times is equal to 2 multiplied by 5.
(v) Similarly, six groups of 3 marbles = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18
The addition fact 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 is the same as the multiplication 3 × 6 = 18
Thus, 3 × 6 = 18 that 3 multiplied by 6 is equal to 18, or 3 into 6 is equal to 18, or product of 3 and 6 is 18.
3 × 6 = 18 is called a
multiplication fact.
This process 3 × 6 = 18 is the multiplication process.
The symbol or sign ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.
In the similar way:
(i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is the addition fact
(ii) 4 × 3 = 12 is the multiplication fact
(iii) for the same numbers addition fact = multiplication fact.
(iv) 4 multiplied by 3 is 12 or 4 into 3 = 12 or product of 4 and 3 = 12
(v) the symbol ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.
● Let us look at the following examples to see what multiplication means.
For example:
1. If a bunch has 6 bananas and there are 2 such bunches, how many bananas are there in all?
This can be written as: 6 + 6 = 12.
Adding the same number over and over again is known as repeated addition. So, there are 12 bananas in all.
Using multiplication,
We write: 2 × 6 = 12
We read: Two multiplied by six is equal to twelve.
Repeated Addition is called multiplication. We use multiplication only when each group has the same number.
Repeated Addition:
There are 5 groups of 2 mangoes each.
How many mangoes are there in all?
There are a total of 10 mangoes.
We see that 2 is added 5 times.
This can be written as 5 times 2 = 5 × 2 = 10
Repeated addition of the same number is called multiplication.
'×' is the symbol for multiplication and is read as 'times' or 'multiplied by'.
Multiplication is a quicker way to find the total than repeated addition.
Let us take another example.
There are 4 groups of 7 leaves each. How many leaves are there in all?
Or, we can say 4 times 7 = 4 × 7 = 28
2. There are 2 volleyball teams. Each team has 3 players.
How many players are there in all?
Using repeated addition,
3 Team 1 |
+ |
3 Team 2 |
= |
6 |
Using multiplication,
We write: 2 × 3 = 6
We read: Two multiplied by five is equal to ten.
So, there are 6 players in all.
Now, if there are 4 such volleyball teams. Each team has 3 players. How many players are there in all?
Using repeated addition:
3 Team 1 |
+ |
3 Team 2 |
+ |
3 Team 3 |
+ |
3 Team 4 |
= |
12 |
Using multiplication,
We write: 4 × 3 = 12
We read: Four multiplied by three is equal to twelve
So, there are 12 players in all.
3. A group has 3 penguins. There are 3 such groups. How many penguins are there in all?
3 + 3 + 3 = 9
We write: 3 × 3 = 9
We read: Three multiplied by three is equal to nine
So, there are 9 penguins in all.
Multiplication means repeated addition of the same number.
In the following pictures, there are 6 pots. Each pot has 3 flowers in it.
Let us find the total number of flowers.
We can do it by adding the number of flowers in each pot.
So, 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18
There are 6 groups of 3 flowers.
So, we have 18 flowers in all.
Remember: '×' is the symbol of multiplication.
We can also write it as 6 × 3 = 18.
We read the multiplication fact as:
"six multiplied by three is equal to eighteen."
Multiplication is simply repeated addition of the same number.
Here,
6 is called multiplier which tells how many times a group occurs.
3 is called multiplicand which tells the number of objects in each group.
18 is called product which gives the total number of objects.
Let us learn the terms used in multiplication.
Worksheet on Basic Multiplication Facts:
1. Count and write number of groups and objects in each set.
(i) | |
_____ groups of _____ apples. | |
(ii) | |
_____ groups of _____ bats. | |
(iii) | |
_____ groups of _____ carrots. |
Answer:
1. (i) 4 groups of 2 apples.
(ii) 3 groups of 3 bats
(iii) 5 groups of 4 carrots.
2. Fill in the boxes. One has been done for you.
(i) 3 + 3 = _6 |
2 threes = _6_ |
(ii) 4 + 4 + 4 = _____ |
3 fours = _____ |
(iii) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = _____ |
5 ones = _____ |
Answer:
2. (ii) 12; 12
(iii) 5; 5
3. Write the multiplication fact as shown.
(i) 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = __6 × 8___
(ii) 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = __________
(iii) 11 + 11 + 11 + 11 + 11 = __________
(iv) 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 = __________
(v) 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = __________
(vi) 4 times 6 = __4 × 6___
(vii) 5 times 8 = __________
(viii) 2 times 7 = __________
(ix) 3 times 9 = __________
(x) 4 times 3 = __________
Answer:
3. (ii) 4 × 10
(iii) 5 × 11
(iv) 4 × 9
(v) 7 × 7
(vii) 5 × 8
(viii) 2 × 7
(ix) 3 × 9
(x) 4 × 3
4. Look at the illustrations, understand and fill in the blanks.
(i) |
___ times ___ = ___ watermelons | |
(ii) |
___ times ___ = ___ marbles | |
(iii) |
___ times ___ = ___ pencils |
Answer:
4. (i) 4 times 1 = 4 watermelons
(ii) 7 times 4 = 28 marbles
(iii) 4 times 10 = 40 pencils
5. Write as repeated addition.
(i) 4 × 5 = __ + __ + __ + __
(ii) 7 × 8 = __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __
(iii) 6 × 3 = __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __
(iv) 10 × 1 = __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __ + __
Answer:
5. (i) 4 × 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 + 5
(ii) 7 × 8 = 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8
(iii) 6 × 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3
(iv) 10 × 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
6. Look at the multiplication fact and write the terms as shown.
Multiplication Sum |
Multiplicand |
Multiplier |
Product |
(i) 5 × 6 = 30 |
__5__ |
__6__ |
__30__ |
(ii) 7 × 8 = 56 |
_____ |
_____ |
_____ |
(iii) 9 × 10 = 90 |
_____ |
_____ |
_____ |
Answer:
6. (ii) 7; 8; 56
(iii) 9; 10; 90
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