Some basic multiplication facts are needed to follow for multiplying numbers. The repeated addition of the same number is expressed by multiplication in short.

look at the following pattern. there are 5 prints of hand. One hand is a group of five fingers.

How many groups of 5 fingers are there?

We can say that, there are 5 groups of 5 fingers.

Let us take some more example of equal groups.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv) There are 5 groups of 2 marbles each.

The total number of marbles of 5 groups may be known by writing 2 in 5 groups or by adding 2 five time as 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10

This number 10 can also be found by multiplying 2 × 5. Thus, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 = 2 × 5 = 10

Hence, repeated addition of 2 five times is equal to 2 multiplied by 5.

(v) Similarly, six groups of 3 marbles = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18

The addition fact 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 is the same as the multiplication 3 × 6 = 18

Thus, 3 × 6 = 18 that 3 multiplied by 6 is equal to 18, or 3 into 6 is equal to 18, or product of 3 and 6 is 18.

3 × 6 = 18 is called a
multiplication fact.

This process 3 × 6 = 18 is the multiplication process.

The symbol or sign ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.

In the similar way:

(i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is the addition fact

(ii) 4 × 3 = 12 is the multiplication fact

(iii) for the same numbers addition fact = multiplication fact.

(iv) 4 multiplied by 3 is 12 or 4 into 3 = 12 or product of 4 and 3 = 12

(v) the symbol ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.

● Let us look at the following examples to see what multiplication means.

**For example:**

**1. If a bunch has 6 bananas and there are 2 such bunches,
how many bananas are there in all?**

This can be written as: 6 + 6 = 12.

Adding the same number over and over again is known as repeated addition. So, there are 12 bananas in all.

Using multiplication,

* We write:* 2 × 6 = 12

* We read:* Two multiplied by six is equal to twelve.

**Repeated Addition
is called multiplication.** We use multiplication only when each group has the
same number.

**2.** **There are 2 volleyball teams. Each team has 3 players.
How many players are there in all?**

Using repeated addition,

3 Team 1 |
+ |
3 Team 2 |
= |
6 |

Using multiplication,

** We write:** 2 × 3 = 6

** We read:** Two multiplied by five is equal to ten.

So, there are 6 players in all.

Now, if there are 4 such volleyball teams. Each team has 3 players. How many players are there in all?

Using repeated addition:

3 Team 1 |
+ |
3 Team 2 |
+ |
3 Team 3 |
+ |
3 Team 4 |
= |
12 |

Using multiplication,

* We write:* 4 × 3 = 12

* We read:* Four multiplied by three is equal to twelve

So, there are 12 players in all.

**3. A group has 3 penguins. There are 3 such groups. How many
penguins are there in all?**

3 + 3 + 3 = 9

* We write:* 3 × 3 = 9

* We read:* Three multiplied by three is equal to nine

So, there are 9 penguins in all.

Questions and Answers on Basic Multiplication Facts:

**1. Count and write number of groups and objects in each set.**

(i) | |

_____ groups of _____ apples. | |

(ii) | |

_____ groups of _____ bats. | |

(iii) | |

_____ groups of _____ carrots. |

**Answer:**

**1.** (i) 4 groups of 2 apples.

(ii) 3 groups of 3 bats

(iii) 5 groups of 4 carrots.

**2. Fill in the boxes. One has been done for you.**

(i) 3 + 3 = _ |
2 threes = _ |

(ii) 4 + 4 + 4 = _____ |
3 fours = _____ |

(iii) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = _____ |
5 ones = _____ |

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