Basic Multiplication Facts
Some basic multiplication facts are needed to follow for multiplying numbers. The repeated addition of the same number is expressed by multiplication in short.
look at the following pattern. there are 5 prints of hand. One hand is a group of five fingers.
How many groups of 5 fingers are there?
We can say that, there are 5 groups of 5 fingers.
Let us take some more example of equal groups.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv) There are 5 groups of 2 marbles each.
The total number of marbles of 5 groups may be known by writing 2 in 5 groups or by adding 2 five time as 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10
This number 10 can also be found by multiplying 2 × 5. Thus, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 = 2 × 5 = 10
Hence, repeated addition of 2 five times is equal to 2 multiplied by 5.
(v) Similarly, six groups of 3 marbles = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18
The addition fact 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 is the same as the multiplication 3 × 6 = 18
Thus, 3 × 6 = 18 that 3 multiplied by 6 is equal to 18, or 3 into 6 is equal to 18, or product of 3 and 6 is 18.
3 × 6 = 18 is called a
multiplication fact.
This process 3 × 6 = 18 is the
multiplication process.
The symbol or sign ‘×’ is the sign
of multiplication.
In the similar way:
(i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is the addition
fact
(ii) 4 × 3 = 12 is the
multiplication fact
(iii) for the same numbers
addition fact = multiplication fact.
(iv) 4 multiplied by 3 is 12 or 4
into 3 = 12 or product of 4 and 3 = 12
(v) the symbol ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.
Questions and Answers on Basic Multiplication Facts:
1. Count and write number of groups and objects in each set.
(i)



_____ groups of _____ apples.

(ii)



_____ groups of _____ bats.

(iii)



_____ groups of _____ carrots.

Answer:
1. (i) 4 groups of 2 apples.
(ii) 3 groups of 3 bats
(iii) 5 groups of 4 carrots.
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