Some basic multiplication facts are needed to follow for multiplying numbers. The repeated addition of the same number is expressed by multiplication in short.

There are 5 groups of 2 marbles each. The total number of marbles of 5 groups may be known by writing 2 in 5 groups or by adding 2 five time as 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10

This number 10 can also be found by multiplying 2 × 5. Thus, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 = 2 × 5 = 10

Hence, repeated addition of 2 five times is equal to 2 multiplied by 5.

Similarly, six groups of 3 marbles = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18

The addition fact 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 is the same as the multiplication 3 × 6 = 18

Thus, 3 × 6 = 18 that 3 multiplied by 6 is equal to 18, or 3 into 6 is equal to 18, or product of 3 and 6 is 18.

3 × 6 = 18 is called a
multiplication fact.

This process 3 × 6 = 18 is the multiplication process.

The symbol or sign ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.

In the similar way:

(i) 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is the addition fact

(ii) 4 × 3 = 12 is the multiplication fact

(iii) for the same numbers addition fact = multiplication fact.

(iv) 4 multiplied by 3 is 12 or 4 into 3 = 12 or product of 4 and 3 = 12

(v) the symbol ‘×’ is the sign of multiplication.

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