Some basic division facts are needed to follow for dividing numbers. The repeated subtraction of the same number is expressed by division in short form and in long form.
Let there be 12 mangoes. These mangoes are to be distributed equally among 4 boys.
Let us distribute 12 mangoes among the 4 boys separately to have the mangoes. First of all one mango is placed for each boy.
We see that a number of mangoes are left. Then another mango is placed for each boy. Still there are mangoes left. Now a third mango is placed for each boy. Now each boy has 3 mangoes and no mango is left outside.
On adding the mangoes for each boy we get;
3 mangoes + 3 mangoes + 3 mangoes + 3 mangoes = 12 mangoes
It means: 3 mangoes 4 times = 12
or, 3 × 4 = 12
It proves the multiplication fact 3 × 4 = 12. Again if we take away 3 four times from 12 we get zero.
It means 12 – 3, four times = 0, 12 ÷ 3 = 4
or, 12 ÷ 4 = 3
Hence we get,
(i) 3 four times or four times 3 shows the multiplication fact:
3 × 4 = 12
or, 4 × 3 = 12
(ii) 3 taken out 4 times shows the basic division fact:
12 ÷ 3 = 4
or, 12 ÷ 4 = 3
Thus, distributing equally or making groups of equal number of objects shows the division fact.
(i) Adding the same number repeatedly shows multiplication fact:
(3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 4 × 3 = 12)
(ii) Subtracting the same number repeatedly shows division fact:
(12 – 3 – 3 – 3 – 3 = 0; 12 ÷ 3 = 4)
Thus, the process of division is the inverse of multiplication and the process of multiplication is the inverse of division.
Therefore, we also know that;
(i) 3 × 4 = 12 gives two division facts as 12 ÷ 3 = 4 and 12 ÷ 4 = 3
(ii) 12 ÷ 3 = 4 gives two multiplication facts as 3 × 4 = 12 and 4 × 3 = 12.
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