We have learnt multiplication of numbers with 2-digit multiplier. Now, we will learn more. Let us know some facts about multiplication.

When each set of numbers are equal we use multiplication to find out the result.

The sign of multiplication is ×.

1. The result of multiplication is called product

e.g. 2 × 3 = 6     (Product).

In multiplication, the number being multiplied is called the multiplicand and the number by which it is being multiplied is called the multiplier.

Example:

The answer of the multiplication is called the product.

2. The product of any number multiplied by a ‘zero’ is zero.

Multiplying any number by 0 will always give 0.

Example: 3 × 0 = 0     or     6 × 0 = 0

Think — If each child gets ‘zero’ sweets, how many sweets will 4 children get?

4 times 0 sweets or 4 × 0 = 0

3. Multiplying any number by 1 will always give that number itself.

The product of any number multiplied by ‘one’ is equal to the number itself.

Example:

× 1 = 7      or      9 × 1 = 9

Think — If every child gets ‘1’ sweet, how many sweets are needed for 8 children?

1 child → 1 sweet

8 children → 8 times 1 sweet

8 × 1 sweet = 8 sweets

Product is equal to the number itself.

4. In a multiplication operation, the product can be equal to the numbers being multiplied or greater than, but never the smaller, except when one of the number is zero.

Example:

5. For every multiplication fact there are two division facts.

Example:

Thus, the product divided by the multiplicand equals the multiplier and the product divided by the multiplier equals the multiplicand.

6. Product is always same even if the order of the numbers changes while multiplying.

In multiplication operation, the change in the order of the numbers being multiplied does not change the product.

Example:

6 x 3 = 18 is same as 3 x 6 = 18

9 × 8 = 8 × 9 = 72

12 × 5 = 5 × 12 = 60

Note:

The division fact is used for finding the missing multiplicand or multiplier.

1. Fill in the blanks - (One has been done for you)

a. 2 × 3 = 3 × 2

b. 5 × 4 = __ × 5

c. 6 × 2 = __ × 6

d. 7 × 5 = __ × 7

e. 9 × 6 = 6 x __

f. 10 × 4 = 4 × __

2. Multiply -

(i) 1 × 7 = ___

(ii) 6 × 2 = ___

(iii) 2 × 5 = ___

(iv) 4 × 9 = ___

(v) 7 × 5 = ___

(vi) 8 × 3 = ___

(vii) 7 × 8 = ___

(viii) 6 × 3 = ___

(ix) 8 × 8 = ___

(x) 3 × 7 = ___

(xi) 9 × 5 = ___

(xii) 8 × 10 = ___

(xiii) 4 × 5 = ___

(xiv) 9 × 10 = ___

(xv) 8 × 3 = ___

(xvi) 2 × 5 = ___

 (xvii)                 7      ×  3     ____ (xviii)          6      ×  4     ____ (xix)           8      ×  8     ____ (xx)         10      ×  2     ____ (xxi)          5      ×  2     ____

3. Fill in the blanks-

(i) 3 × ___ = 18

(ii) ___ × 2 = 18

(iii) 2 × ___ = 14

(iv) ___ × 5 = 45

(v) 7 × 3 = ___

(vi) 4 × ___ = 20

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