Some basic ideas of pictorial representation or pictograph, often related types of symbols or pictures are used to represent a specific number of objects.
For example, a symbol may represent 1 or 10 or 100 or 1000 or any other number of related objects. The symbol/picture used is very simple, clear and self explanatory. The quantity that each symbol represents is indicated clearly in the representation, i.e. the scale is mentioned clearly.
1. Examples of objects whose pictures or symbols are used are: different kinds of animals like birds, insects, men, women, boys, girls, fruits like mangoes, grapes, oranges, apples, trees, cars, scooters, bicycles, plants, etc.
2. The symbol or pictures may be colored. So such colors should be used which are very common, like red, blue, green, yellow, etc.
3. Only the pictures of common fruits are used such as banana, apples, guava, orange, grapes, mangoes, etc.
4. Sometimes the names of the month of a year, or the days of a week need to be mentioned. The names of the months and days may be written vertically and in front of each we may write the roll numbers of the students according to their birthday and birth month. This way we may show the number of students who are born in the month or day concerned.
5. Sometimes, data on yearly production such as the yearly production of wheat or rice in a state, of steel in a factory, etc., may have to be represented. Thus, we must be acquainted with the numbers used to describe the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, etc.
So, pictures of different objects are used as a symbol to give information regarding mathematical data.
In short, the information presented through pictures or symbol of different objects is called pictorial representation of data. The pictures of different objects are used to represent different information, so such pictorial data are called pictographs.