We will learn about the multiplier by 10, 100, 1000, 10000.
We add a zero to the extreme right of the multiplicand while by 10.
For example:
(i) 26 × 10 = 260
(ii) 524 × 10 = 5240
We add two zero to the extreme right of the multiplicand while by 100.
For example:
(i) 26 × 100 = 2600
(ii) 524 × 100 = 52400
We add three zero to the extreme right of the multiplicand while by 1000.
For example:
(i) 26 × 1000 = 26000
(ii) 524 × 1000 = 524000
We add four zero to the extreme right of the multiplicand while by 10000.
For example:
(i) 26 × 10000 = 260000
(ii) 524 × 10000 = 5240000
Multiplication by multiples of 10, 100, 1000, 10000:
We multiply the multiplicand by the nonzero digit of the multiplier. Then we add the same number of zero to the extreme right of the product as the multiplier has.
We can understand this method as follows.
1. First we count the zeros.
2. We multiply the non – zero numbers.
3. We place the same number of zero to the extreme right of the product
Find the product of the following:
(i) 3846 × 20
Solution:
Number of zero = 1
Product of nonzero numbers = 3846 × 2 = 7692
Place 1 zero at extreme right of the product = 76920
Thus, 3846 × 20 = 76920
(ii) 1125 × 300
Solution:
Number of zero = 2
Product of nonzero numbers = 1125 × 3 = 3375
Place 2 zeros at extreme left of the product = 337500
Thus, 1125 × 300 = 337500
(iii) 2420 × 7000
Solution:
Number of zero = 4
Product of nonzero numbers = 242 × 7 = 1694
Place 4 zeros at extreme left of the product = 16940000
Thus, 2420 × 7000 = 16940000
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